Today the competitive world has thrown more challenges to the corporate world. More transparent and clear information to the corporate management and its customers also has been the trick of success in todayâ€™s market. A company can gain confidence and attract more customers if it is very transparent, clear substantial and subjective in its information it provides to its investors and managers. Keeping this in view Accounting Information System has been the talk of the corporate world.The petroleum producing countries are also forced to follow certain technologies in their accounting systems so as to get more information regarding distribution and sharing of profits among its investors. This article is a study on the importance and also applications of AIS in petroleum companies with special reference to Yemen. Concept and definition of AIS The definition of AIS has evolved over the years from one focusing on the provision of more formal, financially quantifiable information to assist in decision-making processes to one that embraces a much broader scope of information.The dimensions used to reflect the design of AIS include focus, orientation, time horizon, aggregation, integration, timeliness, financial and non-financial, and quantitative and qualitative. Defining AIS has been difficult today and research in this area is quite diverse. It includes behavioral studies of audit decision â€“ making tools, field studies of organizational systems, design, development of general ledger systems, and development of accounting models that effectively utilize advancement in computer technology, application of different technology solutions to AIS situations, and many other types of studies.In general, an information system is used to represent the real world phenomena with a set of symbols which are captured and implemented within a computerized environment (McCarthy, 1979). Therefore, an accounting information system is one that translates representations of economic activities into a format that is valuable to accountants and to their customers i. e. , business decision makers, who need information about economic activities. Accountants are being pressured to redefine their contribution to organizations and to expand the scope of their activities beyond financial statement preparation and analysis.They are being called upon to become active enterprise-wide team members who provide information and guidance in strategic decision- making salutations. Similarly, day-to-day operations managers demand a wide range of financial and non-financial performance measures. Therefore, if AIS is going to allow todayâ€™s accountants to provide the information, business decision makers, should meet the following definition: â€œAn accounting information system is one that captures, stores, manipulates, and presents data, about an organizationâ€™s value-adding activities to aid decision makers in planning, monitoring, and controlling the organization. This definition certainly includes financial accounting systems, which have the primary purpose of generating financial statements in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). However; this definition recognizes that businesses must perform a wide range of value-adding activities (such as production, distribution, sales, etc. ) to be successful, and that the types of information needed to mange such activities will be extensive. Therefore, the scope of corporate systems that are included under the AIS umbrella is much broader than the general ledger system and the programs that prepare journal entries to feed it.Actually, AIS is a system that aids in processing transactions and in tracking the data that result from such transactions. These systems also must provide performance measurements (financial and non- financial) and help to enforce management control objectives. They include transaction processing systems (such as billing systems for sales processes), interorganizational systems that share data with upstream and downstream partners (such as web-based order systems and electronic data interchange cash receipt processing), and support systems.This enables economic exchanges (such as order processing, customer market analysis, and inventory control systems). This definition has strong integrative implication. For example, the impact of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems on the market has been dramatic. These systems were initially designed around core functions such as manufacturing or human resources. As they matured, their breadth expanded to include much more of the organizationâ€™s activities. The key characteristic they embraced was developing an integrated data repository which was accessible by users throughout the organization.ERP systems provide massive amounts of data that is up dated in real time, and they are able to provide greater planning support and a wider range of performance measurements which were done previously by manufacturing or management planning systems. Accounting Information System (AIS) is the Information subsystem within an organization that accumulates information from the entityâ€™s various subsystems and communicates it to the organizationâ€™s information processing subsystem. The AIS has traditionally focused on collecting, processing, and communicating financial-oriented information to a companyâ€™s external parties (e. . investors, creditors, and government authorities) and internal parties (mainly management). Under the traditional view of AIS, each organizationâ€™s functional areas, such as marketing, production, finance, and human resources, maintain a separate information system. However, organizations have found the need to integrate these separate systems into one seamless database or to enterprise-wide information system. Today, the AIS is concerned with non-financial information as well as financial data and information.Accounting Information System (AIS) is based on value accounting theory which are designed to store and summarize financial transactions used to produce financial statements in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and to account to the owners of the business in this way. The figure No. 1 has shown Accounting Information System as logical part of MIS. Management Information System (MIS) is defined as an organized method of providing information to each manger with all the data and only those data which he needs for his decisions when he needs them and in a form, which aids to understand and stimulate his action.Fig. No. 1 Illustrates AIS as a Logical Part of MIS. In short, the researchers agree with the definition by Remney Steinbart (2000) : An Accounting information system (AIS) consists of people, procedures and information technology. Accounting Information Systems Functions: Meigs et al. (1999) specified the basic functions of accounting systems in developing information about the financial position of a business and the results of its operations; every accounting system performs following basic functions: 1. Interpret and record the effects of business transactions. 2.Classify the effects of similar transactions in a manner that permits determination of the various totals and subtotals useful to management and used in accounting reports. 3. Summarize and communicate the information contained in the system to decision makers. The differences in accounting systems arise primarily in the manner and speed with which these functions are performed. They ensure full control, which confirm the accuracy in recording and manipulating the data related to business activity and also, protect those data and organizations assets. Characteristics of Accounting Information:Stambaugh ; Carpente, (1992) counted in briefly the Information characteristics as follows. 1- Provided on timely basis. 2- Presented in an aesthetically appealing format. 3- Relevant to the decisions at hand. 4- Concise yet sufficient in scope to allow â€œwhat-ifâ€ analysis. 5- Flexible to interface with information from other functional units. There is also a several characteristics determine the qualities that make information valuable: 1. Costs-versus-benefits: sometimes information costs more to get additional information than the information is worth.Thus, cost-benefit considers to provide an overall constraint on the amount of information a decision-maker will get. 2. Understandability/Granularity/Aggregation: Many factors can contribute to the understandability of information, including user knowledge, skill, training, and motivation. In addition, information design choices its level of aggregation (or granularity) which will affect its understandability, hence, its usefulness for controlling information integrity. For some purposes, highly aggregated information may be called for; whereas for other purposes, very detailed information may be required.Thus, appropriately tailored levels of granularity/aggregation can be enablers of information integrity. A proxy for the understandability of information is its conformity with user-specified requirements. 3. Reliability : the information must be reliable, you must be able to count on its being what its purpose to be (this is known, more formally, as representational faithfulness), and on its being reasonably free from error and bias (this is known, more formally, as neutrality) . Additionally , for information to be reliable, it ought to be true.If seversal different people(or systems)set out to derive the information from the data, they should all come to the same conclusion (this is know, more formally, as verifiability). Infomration that is not veriable , or not neutral, or not representationally faithful canâ€™t be relied on for decision-making. 4. Currency/ Timeliness: It must be accepted that absolute completeness and accuracy are impossible or impractical to achieve. Information Currency is affected by real world changes over time (as well as by information processing delays) with a commensurate impact on information accuracy.Since time is continuous, completeness and accuracy must be understood in a context that defines acceptable limits for information currency, hence accuracy. For example, if certain information, such as cash receipts is only updated on a weekly basis to accounts receivable, then accounts receivable could be considered accurate if it was missing a dayâ€™s worth of transactions. However, if information such as airline reservation transactions updates available seat inventory in real time, then seat inventory would be considered unacceptably inaccurate if a dayâ€™s worth of transactions were omitted.As presented here, processing timeliness and information currency are really aspects of information completeness, which in turn, determines the degree of accuracy that information possesses; however, because of their unique relationship to the dimension of time and the change that time engenders, it is useful to identify currency/timeliness as separate attributes of information integrity. 5. Validity/Authorization: Representational faithfulness of information about intangible objects implies that the information is valid in ways other than correspondence with an original physical condition.The concept of validity means that information represents real conditions, rules or relationships rather than characteristics of physical objects. In a general context, conditions, rules or relationships are valid if what they purport is true. In a business context, conditions, business rules or relationships are established or approved by parties with the delegated authority to do so. Thus, transactions are valid if they were initiated and executed by personnel or systems that have been granted the authority to do so and if approvals are authentic and within the scope of the authority granted to the approver(s).For example, if the credit limit assigned to a customer reconciles to the companyâ€™s rules and procedures used to set credit limits, the credit limit would be â€œvalid. â€ Thus, the concept of validity includes elements of both accuracy and authorization. A validation process may therefore require an investigation of an individual item, a relationship between one item and another item, or a relationship between an item and a business rule, policy or standard. 6.Completeness: Accuracy by itself is insufficient to convey the full dimensionality of the requirements for representational faithfulness which requires completeness of information in both space and time. Thus, there is a fundamental trade-off between completeness and accuracy because measurement and processing limitations of information processing systems will prevent 100% real-time completeness, especially for subject matter that changes frequently. This, in turn, prevents 100% accuracy. In other words, every discussion of accuracy is also a discussion of completeness, and vice versa.The amount of information is measured by the reduction of ignorance and uncertainty and not by the addition of knowledge. The Figure No. 2 illustrates the AIS characteristics according to Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in 1980: Accounting Information Systems Components: An accounting system consists of the personnel, producers, devices, and records used by an organization to develop accounting information and to communicate this information to decision makers. The design and capabilities of these systems vary greatly from one organization to the next.In very small business, the accounting system may consist of little more than a cash register, a check book, and an annual trip to an income tax office. In large business, an accounting system includes computers, highly trained personnel, and accounting reports that affect the daily operations of every department. But in every case the basic purpose of the accounting system remains the same to meet the organizationâ€™s needs for accounting information as efficiently as possible. Many factors affect the structure of the accounting system within a particular organization.The most important are: the companyâ€™s needs for accounting information and the resources available for operation of the system. Accounting Information System Objectives: Naturally, there is no system without goal, we should differ between stated objectives and the real objectives, when the entity declares its stated objectives satisfies consumers wile the real objectives maximum profits at to gain. Each enterprise has implicit and explicit goals and objectives, enterprises may have a mission statement that describes their goals.These goals can vary widely among enterprises ranging from nonprofit organizations, where goals are aimed at serving specified constituents, profit organizations, where goals are directed toward maximizing the ownerâ€™s objectives. It may seem at first sight to be an easy thing to do, but it can be seen as a complex problem in the absence of stated objectives. It means that the firm has no criterion against which to evaluate its success or failure or to use in the process of choosing between alternative activities.One of the problems in stating objectives for a firm is that only people involved with the firm can have objectives, not the firm it self. If this is accepted, then it is obviously possible that there is more than one relevant objective. Accounting is purely human invention, having no independent existence in nature. Hence, it can not in any true sense have been discovered, but it must have been constructed by human minds to serve human needs. Accounting Information System objectives are as follows: 1.Internal control, including the safeguarding of organization money and other property, the regular collection and payment of sums of money owed to and by it, and the prevention and detection of inefficiency, waste, and dishonesty by employees of the organization. 2. Measurement of financial data, by means of the recording of transactions and events affecting the financial state of the organization, and their processing in accordance with consistent rules. 3. Provision of information for planning and decision making to management. 4. Reporting of financial information to properties, investors, and other interested persons.Another author also gives his contribution in accounting system objectives, such as Ijiri, (1975) in addressing the question of what an accounting system should do ? He identifies â€˜accountability' and â€˜information usefulness' as the two main broad objectives that any accounting system should achieve. He states that accountability has clearly been the social and organizational backbone of accounting for centuries. In this sense to account for he takes to explain a consequence by providing a set of causes that have collectively produced the result. To provide accountability is thus an essential feature of an accounting system.However, in the modern business world, information usefulness is also an important, albeit secondary, requirement. Thus, the core of any accounting system is to provide accountability with information usefulness a necessary adjunct. All accounting information systems seek five basic results: 1. To record an actual, valid transaction; 2. To accurately classify the nature of the transaction; 3. To record the correct value of the transaction; 4. To place the transaction in the proper accounting period; and 5. To generate financial statements containing information about the transaction.
A sculpture or three dimensional work of art, can not only be stationary, but kinetic.Â Kinetic sculptures can and does move.Â Many times mobiles are fixed to a babyâ€™s crib to engage the child in active visuals.Â The same principle is used in kinetic sculptures except they are works of art and are for every age to appreciate.Â The intriguing element of a kinetic sculpture is that it changes because it moves.Alexander Calder was innovative in the area of kinetic sculpting.Â IN 1960, he created a sculpture, The Star.Â The Star is a light mobile which changes with the slightest movement of wind.Â Even though the he uses nonfigurative shapes, they almost resemble birds in colors of black and red, with a single yellow star at the top.Â These shapes were made from thin strips of sheet metal and attached by rods to hold them in place.The lightness of weight gives the sculpture an airy effect.Â The lightness adds to the mobility of the art.Â The rods are connected to the sheet metal shapes so that there is mobility in there as well.Â The concept is for the statue to be a little different every time one looks at it.Â The sculpture looks as if it glides in the air.Â While Calderâ€™s first kinetic sculptures relied on cranks and pulleys, he totally relied on wind to move his mobiles.Calderâ€™s kinetic sculpture The Star was a unique form of abstract art.Â The objective of the sculpture was shape and color.Â The Star is a sculpture that is a new work of art every time the air moves around it. Works CitedCalder, A. The Star. 1960Delahunt, M. (1996-2008). Artlex. Retrieved April 12, 2008 from
Rawiri plays an important role in the novel which helped unfolding the events, ranging from minor to significant ones. He relates the events in the â€˜Whale Riderâ€™ as the role of the narrator, allowing the readers to form judgements and learn about things such as the Maori way of life and the characters through his eyes. He also give us his insights as he highlights themes and issues mentioned, like racial discrimination. Besides that, he is the one who sees the many signs of Kahuâ€™s destiny as the leader of the tribe, piecing up a complete picture of her eventual rise as the leader. Additionally, he is her guardian, always protecting and looking out for her. With his carefree personality, he often provides comic relief especially in times of tension. As the narrator, Rawiri relates the events through his personal experience and conversations. This allows us to have a deeper understanding of what had happened that lead to the progress of the story. For example, we know what the relationship between Koro and Nanny is unusual yet endearing as they often quarrel in a chidish manner, like during the time Nanny rowed out to sea to get him back when he was out sulking about Kahuâ€™s birth. We also know that Nannyâ€™s headstrong personality is partially influenced by the fact that her ancestor, Muriwai, inspires her to champion the rights of women. All these enable us to know more about the characters and thus understand the reasons behind certain actions these characters make. He also highlights the theme of gender discrimination through Koroâ€™s steadfast opposition to Kahu as he â€˜virtually hurledâ€™ her out of the meetinghouse, a place not for females, and told her to â€˜go awayâ€™ many times, not even considering her as a potential leader even though she displays many outstanding qualities like leadership skills. During his time at Papua New Guinea, he also highlighted the issue of racial discrimination as he himself with the other natives are discriminated and marginalised. Rawiri is referred to as â€˜home dogs and straysâ€™ by Clara and that Jeffâ€™s family did not care to even send Bernard to the hospital when they knocked him down because he is â€˜only a nativeâ€™. Through his insights, we get to know the harsh reality of class distinctions that is existent among different races, leading to ostracism. Besides that, Rawiri witnesses the signs foreshadowing Kahuâ€™s future as the leader of the Maori tribe. Kahu is multi-talented, is the â€˜leader of the culture groupâ€™ and â€˜love to sing the Maori songsâ€™ and even gave her speech at the end-of-year ceremony entirely in Maori. At such a young age, Kahu unusually displays many outstanding qualities that is required for a leader, and this suggest to the readers that she has what it takes and will eventually take up the leadership position as well. She â€˜criedâ€™ during the whale-beaching movie, â€˜not even a lollipop would satisfy herâ€™ and even â€˜make a mewling sound at her throatâ€™ when she witnessed the scene of whale-hunting on the beach. This shows that she is able to empathise and relate to the whales and there is a sense of communion between them, an ability that not even Koro possessed. He also saw her retrieving the stone from the deep waters, when all the other boys could not even do it. His narration of these events tells us that Kahu is unique and extraordinary, her astounding feats outshines the rest and thus hints to us that Kahu will do something great and lead her tribe. In addition, Rawiri is also Kahuâ€™s guardian and protector as he is always seen to be trying his best to ensure her safety and well-being. During the whale-beaching movie, he felt â€˜protectiveâ€™ â€˜like a fatherâ€™ and felt that should look after her till the world endedâ€™. Rawiri regards himself as a fatherly figure to her and feels the need to look after her, protecting her from all the rain and storm. Also, when Kahu went out to sea in an attempt to save the whales, â€˜instantly I (he) ran through the wavesâ€™, â€˜plunged into the seaâ€™ and â€˜yelled to her, a despairing cryâ€™. Even though he was â€˜frightened by the heavy seasâ€™, he bravely ploughs on for her as he does not want to lose Kahu and felt a strong responsibility to get her back to safety, even if he â€˜would just have to go down this whaleâ€™s throat and pull Kahu right outâ€™. This shows the extent of his guardianship of Kahu as he takes pains to protect this mentally strong yet fragile girl of eight. Lastly, he also provides humour in different moments in the novel, especially in times of tension. For example, when Nanny felt indignant and unfair regarding the exclusion of women during school sessions, Rawiri managed to lighten the tense atmosphere through his comical phone conversation with Cheryl and bringing Kahu to the movies instead, with the girls â€˜assessing whether I (he) had now become marrying materialâ€™. By inserting comic relief, there is a variation in the mood throughout the novel and thus the readers do not feel perpetually a sense of pressure and tension, and are able to feel relaxed. Also, the way Nanny wanted to look her best despite her failure as she wears a hat that â€˜must have looked wonderful in the 1930sâ€™ and â€˜added a bit of this and a bit of that until it looked just like something out of her vegetable gardenâ€™ is a comic element which enables us to find her as an endearing character even though she is old-fashioned. By providing humour, it lightens the overall atmosphere and learn more about the characters. In conclusion, Rawiri narrates the events in the novel through his point of view and highlights certain themes and issues presented by the author. He is also he guardian of Kahu and takes care of her, assuming a fatherly position. Furthermore, he is the one who consistently sees the signs of Kahuâ€™s fate to rise up as the next leader of the tribe. Lastly, he also provides comic relief which help to lighten the mood of the novel, especially during times of tension. He is definitely an important character which helps the story to progress efficiently.
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